THE CONCEPTS OF ‘VIOLENCE’ AND ‘NONVIOLENCE’ IN YAŚŌDHARA CARITE A JAIN NARRATIVE POETRY OF KANNADA POET JANNA
THE CONCEPTS OF ‘VIOLENCE’ AND ‘NONVIOLENCE’ IN YAŚŌDHARA CARITE , A JAIN NARRATIVE POETRY OF KANNADA POET JANNA
B.A. Viveka Rai, Würzburg/Mangalore, India (email@example.com)
This is synopsis of my paper presented at the Seventh International Würzburg Colloquium on “Perspectives of Indian Studies: Exploring Jain Narrative Literature. ” at the University of Würzburg, Germany on 30th of August 2013.
A Jain Kannada poet of 13th century AD figures prominently among the major classical poets of Kannada literature. Janna was born into a family of eminent scholars in 1163 AD near Halebidu, once the centre of art and sculpture in Karnataka. He held high positions in the court of Hoysala kings. His chief patron was King Vīra Ballāla who conferred on him the title ‘Emperor among the poets’ and made him his court poet.
The two major classical epics of Janna:
Ananthanatha Purāna (1230 AD) is a typical Jain Purāna composed in traditional classical ‘Champu‘ style (Mixture of prose and verses containing ‘vrutta‘ and ‘kanda‘ meters)
Yaśōdhara Carite (1209 AD) is shorter in size with only four cantos (‘avatāra‘) with totally 319 verses, mainly in ‘kanda‘ meter and ‘vruttas’ only at the end of each canto.
THE STORY OF YAŚŌDHARA CARITE CAN BE IDENTIFIED IN PREVIOUS WORKS ON THE SAME THEME
1. Samarāichcha kahā: Haribhadra – Prakrut – 8th C AD
2. Bruhatkathā Kōśa: Hariśena – Sanskrit -10th C AD
3. Yaśastilaka Campu: Sōmadēva – Sanskrit – 959 AD
4. Jasaharacariu: Pushpadanta -Prakrut – 968 AD
5. Yaśōdhara Carita: Vadiraja – Sankrit – 1025 AD
CONCEPTS AND MODES OF VIOLENCE IN YAŚŌDHARA CARITE
1. Physical and barbaric
The poetry begins in the first canto with the description of violent pictures and actions: detailed description of the festival of the evil goddess Māri with animal sacrifice and human sacrifice. Here the description of the spring season depicts the symbolic representation of violence. The narration of barbaric scenes of bringing different animals to the temple for sacrifice to the goddess Māri gives an idea of violence.
The different modes of physical violence are depicted in the third canto in the pretext of various rebirths and deaths of Yaśōdhara and his mother Candramati.
They were made to participate and also subjected to violent actions including direct killing.
2. Mental violence/torture
In the second canto, both husband Yaśōdhara and wife Amrutamati suffer from mental torture due to the broken minds between them. After knowing the adultery of his wife Amrutamati who secretly meets and had sexual relations with Așțavanka, the mahout (elephant-driver), Yaśōdhara suffers from mental torture. An incident wherein Amrutamati comes back after having sexual act with Așțavanka and sleeps by the side of Yaśōdhara in his bed, his feelings are expressed like this:
“The king turned a little to her side, and felt her breasts touch him. They were, once smooth and yielding, he felt, but now they seemed hard and repulsive. A mere touch of hers was, once, enough to send him into rapture. But today it sickened him.”
Amrutamati‘s mental agony was of different type. When once she came late to meet her lover Așțavanka, the elephant-driver, he beats her and assaults her physically in a brutal way by kicking her and pulling her hair. But Amrutamati does not feel it as a violent act. She begs with him:
“My love, my master, it is true I am late, but not without reason. My husband, the fiend he is, sat me on his lap and plied his caresses on me……. Listen, if you desert me now, this would be my end…”
3.Sankalpa Himse: Intention of violence/thought of violence/ritual violence
‘Sankalpa‘ = Solemn vow; Resolution
Canto 3 of Yaśōdhara Carite
Yaśōdhara believing in Jain philosophy of nonviolence rejects the idea of offering an animal as sacrifice to goddess. He says to his mother: “Mother, the shedding of blood whether animal’s or man’s will never bring good…. Blood will always have blood. You forget, mother, that compassion for life, for all life in nature, is the very essence of Jainism. How can we who believe in the joy of life, then, believe in violence as efficient means?”
The mother’s reply: “Dear son, don’t disregard the words of your elders. Honor my words; don’t the kings, in matter of Dharma, do deeds that bring peace, tell me. If you don’t like to kill life and offer sacrifice to gods, at least make a cock/chicken out of flour-paste (dough) and offer it with love. But if you don’t pay heed to my words, I will not hesitate to offer myself as sacrifice to the gods and ward off the evil.”
‘He pondered: Every thought contains the seed of action. Now that I’m giving assent, what misdeeds would follow, I don’t know. If I don’t put her words into action, mother will die; if I do, the misdeed will attend on the next birth. His mind wavered, but the mother’s love prevailed.’
Yaśōdhara made a ‘dough-cock’ for a symbolic offering to goddess. But before he could cut the dough-cock, an evil spirit entered into the body of it. The dough-cock crowed like a living bird when Yaśōdhara cut it as an offering.
This kind of ‘Sankalpa-violence’ resulted in six rebirths and deaths of Yaśōdhara and his mother Candramati as pairs of enemies and finally both embracing Jainism and becoming ascetics.
KANNADA LITERATURE AND JAINISM
Kannada Literature begins with classical epics of Jain poets from 10th AD:
– Pampa: Ādipurāna; Vikramārjunavijaya (Pampabhārata)
– Ponna: Śāntipurāna
– Ranna: Ajitapurāna; Sāhasabhīmavijaya
Followed by Cavundaraya, Nagacandra, and other Jain poets.
Virashaivism, a new religious cult in Karnataka was established in 12th AD . Basavanna and others were the protagonists.
Conflict between Jainism and Shaivism/Virashaivism.
Identity and survival of Jainism in Karnataka after 12th AD.
In the second half of 12th AD Chola kings attacked Jains in Northern Karnataka. Jain basadis were burnt and destroyed. There was also attack by Shaiva propagandists likes Viruparasa, Adayya and Goggayya.
Rāghavānka’s ‘Sōmanātha cāritra ‘(13th AD) gives the account of conversion of a Jain temple into Shaiva temple at Puligere.
So Jain poets changed their content and style.
Janna was the pioneer in writing Jain poetry with compassion at the time of survival of Jainism in Karnataka.
Popular stories with Jain ideology. Stories related to ‘nōmpi‘ (religious/austere act). Importance of ‘fasting’ and ‘conclusion of religious fast’ based on Jain philosophy: such themes became popular in Jain narrative literature after 12th century. ‘Jīvadayāsthami’ is a religious fasting based on the philosophy of compassion towards all living beings. This is highlighted in Janna’s Yashodhara Carite which strives for the popularisation of Jainism among the common mass of Karnataka.
At the end of Yaśōdhara Carite, there is a dramatic change related to the idea of violence. The cruel goddess Māri appears suddenly in her temple and addresses the crowd asking them: “To desist from killing bird or beast and ordained that henceforth offer her only sandal and flowers, grain, incense and betel leaf in a holy worship.” So Māri, the goddess of violence herself converted into a goddess of nonviolence. Interestingly Māridatta, the king who organized all kinds of human and animal sacrifices was impressed by the philosophy of nonviolence and he released all the animals brought to the temple for sacrifice. As a mark of penitence , he renounced royalty and became a Jain monk. The folk religion which advocated sacrifice of human beings and animals was converted into Jainism, a religion of nonviolence. Māri was a deity of the masses in folk religion. So the conversion of Māri into Jainism denotes the conversion of folk – religions into classical religions to attract the masses.
Giraddi Govindaraja (Ed): Janna. Bangalore, Karnataka Sahitya Academy, 2008.
Karigauda Bicanahalli: Yashodhara Carite mattu Abhijaata Parampare. Hampi, Kannada University, 2011.
Krsnakumara, C. P. (Ed): Janna Samputa. Hampi, Kannada University, 2007.
Raghavacar, K. V. (Ed): Yashodara Cariteya Sangraha. Mysore, Mysore University, 1941.
Shivakumar, K. Y.: Janna : Ondu Adyayana. Mysore, Cetana Book House, 2000.
Sitaramayya, V. (Ed): Janna. Bangalore, IBH Publication, 1975.
Handiqui, K. K.: Yaśastilaka and Indian Culture. Sholapur, Jaina Samkriti Samrakshana Sangha, 1968.
Karnad, Girish: Bali : The Sacrifice. New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2004.
Sharma, TRS (Trans): Janna : Tale of the Glory-Bearer : The Episode of Candaśāsana. New Delhi, Penguin Books India, 1994.
M.GOVINDA PAI ( 23 March 1883-6 September 1963 ) was a scholar, poet ,researcher ,translator who had the knowledge of about 25 languages ,both classical and modern ,across the globe and was always learning and exploring new horizons in language,literature,religion,history and culture .Starting from his village and his sect of religion he transcended in space and time studying and writing on the so called ‘alien’ religions and cultures ,becoming a native in all of them.Different sects of Hinduism,Jainism ,Buddhism ,Christianity ,Islam were addressed by Govinda Pai ,as a domain of research or for creation of a literary work or for translation into his languages.
But what is astonishing is , the legendary figure Govinda Pai did all these wonders ,mostly sitting in his remote small town in Manjeshwara ,which is in the west coast of South India ,near the port town Mangalore. The initial ‘M’ attached to the name ‘Govinda Pai’ really refers to ‘Mangalore’ which was his father’s place. But Pai lived in ‘Manjeshwara ‘ ,which was his mother’s place for more than 50 years.So he was popularly addressed as ‘Manjeshwara Govinda Pai’. After having his primary and secondary education in Mangalore ,Pai went to Madras for his graduate studies,which he could not complete ,since he had to come back home because of his father’s illness.But Pai studied everything in his remaining life at home with books of knowledge cutting across the boundaries of language ,religion,region and academic disciplines.
Being born in a community called ‘Gowda Saraswata Brahman ‘ who speak ‘Konkani ‘as their mother tongue , the community has its jurisdiction traditionally in the west coast of South India ,the present Goa,Karnataka and Kerala, Govinda Pai started his writing of research focusing on his ancestors ,Saraswats. Pai chose to write in the language ,Kannada , which was the language of the state ,formerly known as Mysore, now Karnataka.Once he wrote that he had two mothers ,’Konkani’ ,who gave him birth ,but had not breast milk to feed him then ,and ‘Kannada’ , the mother who nourished him. But learning of various languages was a passion for Pai.Other than Konkani and Kannada ,he acquired the skill of languages in different levels like speaking ,reading and understanding , namely, Tulu,Tamil.Telugu,Sanskrit ,Hindi,,Marathi,Urdu,Pali,Prakrit,Bengali, English,Persian,Greek,Japanese ,Latin,German,French, Spanish,Hebrew ,Italian and such other languages.
All his books which were in his personal library are now preserved in a research institute in Udupi,Karnataka with the vision and mission of Prof.K.S.Haridasa Bhat : Rashtrakavi Govinda Pai Samshodhana Kendra ,M.G.M.College,Udupi. govindapairesearch.blogspot.com
Govinda Pai with his erudite scholarship ,read the books on various world religions and as a poet he composed narrative poems based on his reading and research.His two major epic lays are ,’Golgotha’ and ‘Vaishakhi’. ‘Golgotha ‘ is about the last days of Jesus Christ and ‘Vaishakhi’ is about the last days of Buddha. His literary work, ‘ShriKrishna Charita’ is a translation from Bengali to Kannada. He learnt Bengali for the purpose of this translation. Pai also translated 50 Rubaiyats of Omar Khayyam into Kannada language. Another major contribution of Govinda Pai to Kannada Language ,is his translation of Japanese Noh plays.It was a pleasant combination of Buddhisim and Japanese theater brought into Indian milieu .The research papers of Govinda Pai on Indian religions encompassed Jainism , Buddhism ,various sects of Hinduism such as Dhwaita ,Shaiva ,and also indigenous religions like Veerashaivism and Natha Cult. His approach was to find out new information ,not to criticize. Pai composed a poem comparing Jesus and Krishna. He gives many similarities between the icons of the two religions.He concludes in the poem saying that ” Days may be different ,but can the sun be different?” Thus he was a real Indian image of Universal religions .
Govinda Pai was a true Gandhian in principle and practice to the core.When Gandhi was assassinated ,Pai shed tears in a poem ,” Mahatma , you should have lived some more time , now India needs you very much.” In one of his poems , Pai criticized the bombing of America on Hiroshima in Japan.His poetic vision predicts ,” The time is waiting for the reaction to such a misdeed ,they will die with their own weapons, you see.”
Govinda Pai was the first ‘Rashtrakavi ‘ ( National Poet) of Kannada Language. This title was awarded in 1948 by the then Government of Madras State , to which ‘South Kanara’ ,the district of Pai belonged to. But unfortunately , Manjeshwara , the hometown of Pai was carved out of Karnataka and added to Kerala state in 1956.He was very sad by this irrational partition and he identified with Karnataka in his writings till his last breath.
Govinda Pai composed his narrative poem ‘Golgotha or the last days of Jesus Christ’ in the year 1931. He studied New Testament and Gospels of Mathew,Mark, Luke and John.He dedicated his work ‘Golgotha’ to the children of his elder brother.There he says ,” God is truth,truth is God.There is only one path for all chariots.This is the philosophy to be comprehended.Thus to love one God in all the religions ,dear children, I dedicate this poem to you.”
The English translation of the portions from the narrative poem ‘Golgotha’ is given below.
Translation from Kannada to English : K.Narasimha Murthy.
Source Book:’A String of Pearls’
Editors: H.S.Shivaprakash and K.S.Radhakrishna
Publisher: Karnataka Sahitya Academy,Bangalore , Karnataka ,India. 1990.
A Friday it was , a day of the full moon
In spring. Midday, but no sign of the sun,
The sky was overspread with a vast cloud
Like that end- of- the- world cloud Noah has witnessed.
The heat unbearable. No breeze, Only the earth
Gasping.Tree’s leaves unstirring . Breathless the birds.
Midnight-like but the people , not quietly
Staying home ,moved like a python ,crowding
Like swarms of grasshoppers ,beyond the gates
Of Jerusalem to the mount of Golgotha ,
Meaning the place of a skull. Three crosses on
The hill-top were set up. To the one in the middle was taken
Jesus and to the ones on the right and the left
Two thieves and their hands and feet were thereto nailed.
A tablet inscribed ” Jesus ,King of the Jews”
Was hung above Jesus’ head. And Jesus looking
Like a quail in a vulture’s clutches, like a slip of the moon
In the west, like a shaft in a bow drawn ,like the fruit
On death’s tree, of immortality and saying, “Pain
Is inherent in the body, no man can escape it,” endured
With cool fortitude the agonising crucifixion
As a mother, when the child looks up at her face, bears
Her travail or as a soldier in the vanguard, unmindful
Of his many wounds fights till he dies
A victor and uttered these words like a mother dying
Whose only thoughts are of the children she is leaving
Or a tree which offers its shade to its own hewers ,
“Forgive them,Father , for they Know not what they do.”
The crowds that heard jeered, ” If you are the Son of God,
Come down from the crucifix ” and the priests mocked ,saying .
” He who saved others can he not save himself?
The King of the Jews indeed ? We will believe it if he comes down.
He says he enjoys God’s trust. Let us see if God
Saves him ! Does he not claim to be the Son of God?”
By this time had darkness dense enveloped
Earth and sky , like the Son of God’s martyrdom’s play’s
Final curtain. A solar eclipse it seemed
Though it was a full moon day and there were no stars.
Was it the darkness of rain? Or rain of darkness ?
Or was it the black smoke from the sky’s volcano ?
Or was it the ninth plague of Egypt’s visitation ?
The Crowd trembled to see the day’s light extinguished
Even in the third part of the day .Then Jesus cried,
In King David’s importunate words ,
“Eli,Eli, lama Sabachthani ?”
( O God ,O God ,why have you deserted me ? )
And some in the crowd mocked again , ” He calls
On Elia, let us eee if Elia will rescue him.”
And then Jesus fixing his eyes on the sky
Cried in a voice like thunder , ” Father,
Into your hands I submit my soul,” and as a young deer
Leaps to its mother calling from the hill-top
Or as a lark darts towards fields of harvest
Or as lightning soars flashing in the horizon ,
Jesus’ soul sped to the sphere of unsetting suns
As he rendered his life to his Father , head bowed
And eyes closed , like one rendering to his master what he owed.
Earth trembled and like a death drum announcing to the world
The doleful event ,the hearts of those gathered
Thudded with terror. The Roman centurion
Or guard dismounted from the horse, removed
His helmet and cried, ” He is indeed the Son of God!”
Fixing his wondering eyes on that day time moon.
Slowly the cloud of darkness lifted
A light breeze blew. A cock peeped forth and crowed
As if at dawn. Bevies of birds streamed out of nests
Flocks of sheep returned half-starved home.
As the daytime night departed , the sun rose
In the west and as sun set ,viewing the other sun
On the central cross, his face turned to the west
And his form like a banner of righteousness
The crowd, like cranes in a mass taking wing,
Hurried homewards, till on Golgotha
No stir was there, no, not a sound.
A skull at the foot of the cross with a hollow nose
And mouth agape mocks the world. Spear in hand,
The sentinel keeps guard marching up and down
And watching anxiously for his relief.
Under a fig tree’s shade , not too far away,
Sits hidden, Mary Magdalene, the herald
Of the new awakening of David’s line,
Her eyes fixed on the central cross, like a peacock
Gazing at the rainbow on the very last cloud .
Then the moon rising from behind Golgotha ,
Raises over the undying dead one its white
Umbrella and like his fame’s milky stream
And like the purity of his precept and example
And like the immortal nature of his soul
Moonlight spreads and everywhere there is stillness
And everywhere peace ,peace everywhere.Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( 2 so far )